Brain Quickly Remembers Complex Sounds

Posted: Monday, June 7, 2010 by minangka in Labels: ,
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Memorizing patterns in random, confused noise is easier than it sounds. According to a new study, repeated listens alone are enough to teach the brain 100 percent accurate recognition.

"The auditory brain seems to be fairly plastic over fairly short time scales," said lead researcher Daniel Pressnitzer of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in France.

Researchers subjected volunteers to randomly generated samples of noise that were added to a base of meaningless, complex sound. First perceived as an "indistinct hiss," the background gave way to the half-second long snippets, which sometimes repeated.

After playing a noise pattern several times, the researchers discovered that listeners nearly always recognized the noise pattern when it played again. Two listens were enough for those with a trained ear, and only about 10 listens were enough for those with less experienced ears.

"It seems like a large number of listens, but you have to remember that the things we played to these people were completely unpredictable sounds. They really just sounded like: psssh," Pressnitzer told Livescience. "For these sounds that are quite complex and completely unpredictable, it's a bit like, if you were trying to memorize 20,000 random numbers, and you just have them 10 times replayed for you.”

The listeners were never told that there was anything for them to remember, said Pressnitzer.
Participants could recall the sound weeks later, leading scientists to conclude that this auditory mechanism was not simply fast, but solid and long-lasting.

"That's quite surprising, because there's really no way they could have rehearsed in their head whatever it is they wanted to memorize," Pressnitzer said. "And also, they didn't really know that we were going to call them and play them the same sounds after a little while, so it just stayed there for some reason."

The results imply that auditory neurons rapidly adapt to a given sound stimulant, and do so in a manner that plays a "very effective role in the learning of sounds," the researchers said in a statement.

Previous studies on sound and memory have focused on speech or pure tones, Pressnitzer said. Desire to fill the gap between these two “extremes,” particularly the timbre of a voice and how people learn new sounds, inspired the study.

The study's results show that auditory memory is as impressive as visual memory, but in different ways, Pressnitzer said. While complex images can be remembered without repetition, audio memory seems to require that repetition take place in order to come into effect.

"Maybe hearing is more tuned to detect repetitions or patterns that reoccur in an environment, whereas vision could take advantage of the fact that even when you take a picture you have a different time limit, so you actually produce your own active exploration," Pressnitzer said.

Wow! Giant Gecko sold out 179 Billion Rupiahs

Posted: Saturday, May 8, 2010 by minangka in Labels:
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NUNUKAN, KOMPAS.com - Incredible!
A giant gecko found weighing 64 kilograms in Nunukan-Malaysia border in Kalakbakan ultimately sold 64 million Malaysian ringgit or equivalent to Rp 179.2 billion (exchange rate of Rp 2800).


"Gecko it is sold at RM 1 million per kilogram," Arbin said, that could perpetuate the image of gecko when contacted on his cell phone in Malaysia.

Since Daily Tribun Kaltim (Kompas Gramedia Group) announces the discovery that the gecko, the phone in the office or correspondent in turn contacted the businessman who claimed to want to buy these geckos.

Because of this, journalists in Nunukan Tribun Kaltim contact Arbin located in Tawau, Malaysia, to look back Kalakbakan gecko in it. Having checked again it was bought by an Indonesian.

"Gecko purchased his Indonesian people and then taken out of the country, if not wrong to China," said Arbin. Although already sold out, there are still many buyers chasing geckos callers are to be purchased again with a more expensive price.

Not much information was obtained Arbin about the transaction because the owner of the gecko also has gone to Kuala Lumpur. "I've tried looking for information on who buys, but no one knows. The people there just said there were people from Indonesia who buy," he said. (Noe)
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Inflammation of the colon? Please try .. Olive Oil Consumption

Posted: Sunday, May 2, 2010 by minangka in
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LOS ANGELES - Increased consumption of olive oil is thought to reduce the risk of suffering due to colitis, according to findings of a new study.
The new findings were presented Saturday in the Digestive Disease Week conference in New Orleans, United States.


Some researchers from the School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, in England, following the development of more than 25,000 people, aged 40-65 years, between 1993 and 1997. Not one participant was suffering from colitis at the beginning of the study. Until 2002, 22 participants had inflammatory disease.

The researchers compared the diet of all people that they are not infected with the disease and found that those with the most widely consumed "oleic acid" for a possible 90 percent lower for inflammatory bowel disease. "` Oleic acid is a fatty acid omega-9 unsaturated single-embedded on a variety of sources and animal and vegetable.

The researchers concluded that people who take their food rich "oleic acid" has a much smaller chance for esophageal inflammation of the colon. "` `Oleic acid seems to help prevent the development of colitis by blocking chemicals in the large intestine contained more severe inflammation in the disease," said study leader Dr. Andrew Hart at the University of East Anglia.

"We estimate that about half of cases of colitis can be prevented if` `oleic acid is consumed in greater numbers. Two-to-three tablespoons of olive oil per day will have an impact protection," he said. Colitis is an inflammatory disease entrails mengakitkan tract ulcers in the rectum and colon, resulting in abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss.

The Neurons That Built Civilization

Posted: by minangka in Labels:
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By IOL Health & Science Staff


Mirror Neurons
Our neurons fire impulses so that we can do things like moving a hand in a certain direction to grab something. Mirror neurons fire same impulses when seeing someone doing the same complex movement, acting like virtual reality simulation neurons.

But what is the significance of this? How did that affect civilization? Did they really have a role in human evolution? And more importantly, is culture hereditary?

You might be more connected to human beings around you than you think.

In this video neuroscientist Vilayanur Ramachandran explains the wonderful function of mirror neurons.

Ramachandran is a neurologist who is interested in mapping out the brain's basic functions and reactions. He studies persons with strokes and neurological affection to help him in gaining such knowledge.

He is the director of the Center for Brain and Cognition at the University of California, San Diego, and an adjunct professor at the Salk Institute.

He is the author of Phantoms in the Brain, A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness and The Man with the Phantom Twin: Adventures in the Neuroscience of the Human Brain.

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Villagers to Kill Disturbing Sumatran Elephants

Posted: Friday, April 30, 2010 by minangka in
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TAPAKTUAN, KOMPAS.com
- Dozens of residents from several villages in East Trumon sub-district, South Aceh district, threatened to kill Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) that destroyed local plantation areas. The wild elephant herd has destroyed dozens of hectares of palm oil trees, bananas, betel nuts, coconuts and local plantations since January, said an East Trumon resident, Syarifuddin, here Saturday.

"We have reported the rampage to the sub-district office and the Natural Resources Conservation Body (BKSDA) but received no response that it will be addressed. So it would not be our responsibility if we later intoxicated or speared the animal," he said.

There have been a lot of material damages the animal has caused suffering the residents and they have no idea where else to complain, he said. Jambo Dalem village chief, Tengku Baili, earlier said that the man-elephant conflicts have resulted in dozens of people coming to his house threatening to hunt down and kill these animals.

The chief said that the elephant-human conflict in the East Trumon sub-district has lasted for about seven years and caused a casualty, after someone was trampled by the elephant in early 2006. East Trumon sub-district chief, H Lahmuddin, said that the conflict has a negative impact on the villagers’ economy, because the crops they harvest are not good.

"I estimate the material losses caused by disturbance of elephants during the last seven years have reached hundreds of million rupiahs. We expect the government to build an elephant prevention post in order to minimize the loss," said Lahmuddin.

Besides Jambo Dalem village, a herd of elephants has also entered the residential population in Naca, Pinto Rimba and Kapa Sesak village.

"Many attempts have been made to drive away the big animals, but have not shown the expected results," he said,

He is hoping for some relevant parties to immediately overcome the problem by driving the herd back to their habitats.

"If it is not done immediately, I am afraid people will take the law into their own hands," he said.Kmps

Deadliest Animal Poisons

Posted: Wednesday, April 28, 2010 by minangka in Labels:
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Jakarta, There are many poisonous animals on earth. Among them there are even that can be very deadly in a short time. What are the most deadly poisonous animals?

Animals who fall into the category of toxic, hazardous chemicals usually have a so-called toxins. These toxins can be stored in glands or skin of animals.

In general, poisonous animals in the world has a very bright color. Usually bright yellow, blue, red or orange.

When predators are not afraid of color-a striking body color, then it could kill him. This is because the level of toxins in animals is so concentrated, even in small amounts can be lethal even with a direct effect on the heart and lungs.

As quoted from Buzzle and Scienceray, Wednesday (28/04/2010), the following 10 most deadly poisonous animals, namely:

1. Box jellyfish (Box jellyfish)
Box jellyfish is deadly jellyfish found in Australian waters and Asia. Toxins in this jellyfish is deadly to directly attack the heart, skin cells and human nervous system and other animals.

This animal is very strong poisons and cause tremendous pain. Usually people will be stung by the tentacles into shock and drown or be directly suffered a heart attack and died.



2. Snake King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah)
One bite of this snake can easily kill humans. King Cobra snake poison even able to kill an adult Asian elephant in just three hours, if bitten in vulnerable areas such as the proboscis.

King Cobra can not so toxic than other snakes, but snakes are able to inject five times more toxic than other snakes, so it can shut down five times faster than other re.



3. Marble Cone snails
This snail is found in the waters of the salt water. One drop of Marble Cone snail venom sufficient to kill about 20 people. When touched by this slugs will cause severe pain, numbness, tingling and swelling in areas untouched. It also can cause breathing failure, paralysis of muscles and vision problems. And yet there could be for anti-Marble Cone snail venom is.



4. Blue Circle Octopus (Octopus Blue-Ringed)
This octopus is only the size of a ping-pong ball, but this marine animal toxins capable of killing about 26 people. At the beginning of the bite, there is no symptoms such as pain, but within 10 minutes, the symptoms began to look like nausea and vomiting.

There are also some cases that result in paralysis and death. And until now there has been no antidote for the poison of this octopus.



5. Death Stalker Scorpions (Death Stalker Scorpion)
Most scorpions are relatively harmless and only cause pain, numbness or swelling.

Death Stalker But the scorpion is very dangerous, because it is a scorpion venom can cause unbearable pain, then fever, followed by coma, seizures, paralysis, and death.

This type of scorpion will usually kill individuals who have immune system that are not good or weak of heart. Death Stalker Scorpions are found mostly in North Africa and the Middle East.



6. Stone Fish (Stonefish)
These fish are found mostly in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and is the most toxic species of fish.

This fish store toxins in the body surface which is totally manarik and resembles stone. Stone fish venom is known to cause severe pain, and even called a 'drowning pain known to man'.

Stone fish stings can cause a person suffering from shock, paralysis and even death of the network. If you do not get immediate medical treatment can cause amputations and death in humans.



7. Brazilian Wandering Spiders (Brazilian Wandering Spider)
Brazilian Wandering spider, known as a banana or Phoneutria profit, is one of life's most poisonous creatures. This spider's venom can be very deadly even in very small quantities. 0.006 mg toxin Brazilian Wandering spiders can kill a rat.

Brazilian Wandering spider is the most poisonous spiders among other spiders. Sting the spider not only cause tremendous pain, but also can cause Priapism (an erection that lasted uncomfortable for hours and even cause impotence) in men.

These spiders live nomadic (wandering) and often hid in the daytime high in highly populated areas such as houses, piles of clothes, shoes and cars, so it can be very disturbing.



8. Inland Taipan Snake
Inland Taipan snake is the most poisonous snake in a snake ketegori. One bite of this snake can kill up to 100 adult humans. Even the Inland Taipan snake venom 400 times more toxic than ordinary cobra.

Snake venom is a neuro-toxic so that it can kill humans in less than 45 minutes.


9. Poison Dart Frogs (Poison Dart Frog)
These amphibians are found in rainforests in South America or Central America and also one of the most poisonous animal on earth.

Sized 2-inch frog was able menyimpam poison behind his skin color is beautiful and flashy.

Concentrated poison, in small quantities have been capable of killing large numbers of humans and animals, approximately 2 micrograms (number of ink used for writing).

This is called poison frog poison dart frogs, poison frogs are often taken and used on arrows for hunting. And it stung the frog any creature approaching, touching or eating it.



10. Pillows fish (puffer fish)
A beautiful aquarium fish, but can also be fatal menyababkan things. Skin and certain organs of the fish is very baracun pillow for men, and usually will mamatikan for inexperienced fishermen catching and eating this fish.

These fish can be deadly poison lips, tongue and even cause muscle paralysis. Most victims die within 24 hours. From 1996 to 2006, averaging about 20-44 incidents of poisoning per year, and six of them fatal. Because these toxins in fish, only licensed chefs are allowed to make this fish as food.Detik

NASA Unveils New Images of The Sun

Posted: Thursday, April 22, 2010 by minangka in Labels: , ,
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Your mother always said not to look directly at the sun. In this case, you may want to make an exception.

NASA released stunning new images captured by their Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, a space telescope designed to study our sun.

"SDO is our 'Hubble for the sun,'" says Lika Guhathakurta, a NASA scientist, in a statement released Wednesday. NASA says SDO will play a critical role in helping scientists understand our nearest star more thoroughly, as well as its effect on our planet.

Since its launch on February 11, SDO has been moving into a geosynchronous orbit and bringing its on-board instruments online. The images unveiled on Wednesday's press conference are among the first images sent back by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, the observatory's main telescope array.

One thing that makes SDO unique it its ability to see the big picture -- literally. Rather than just focusing on a section of the sun, the observatory is able to monitor the entire sun in what it calls the "full disk" view.

NASA plans to have SDO in operation for the next five years, and says the observatory has enough fuel on board to continue to operate for an additional five years after it completes its initial science mission.Kmps

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Cocoa-rich dark chocolate could be prescribed for people with liver cirrhosis in future

Posted: Sunday, April 18, 2010 by minangka in Labels: , ,
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Cocoa-rich dark chocolate could be prescribed for people with liver cirrhosis in future, following the latest research to show potential health benefits of chocolate.

Spanish researchers said Thursday that eating dark chocolate capped the usual after-meal rise in abdominal blood pressure, which can reach dangerous levels in cirrhotic patients and, in severe cases, lead to blood vessel rupture.

Antioxidants called flavanols found in cocoa are believed to be the reason why chocolate is good for blood pressure because the chemicals help the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels to relax and widen.

A study of 21 patients with end-stage liver disease found those given a meal containing 85 percent-cocoa dark chocolate had a markedly smaller rise in blood pressure in the liver, or portal hypertension, than those given white chocolate.

"This study shows a clear association between eating dark chocolate and (lower) portal hypertension and demonstrates the potential importance of improvements in the management of cirrhotic patients," said Mark Thursz, a professor of hepatology at London's Imperial College.

The results were presented at the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver in Vienna and follow a number of earlier scientific studies suggesting that dark chocolate also promotes heart health.

Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver as a result of long-term damage. It is caused by various factors, including hepatitis infection and alcohol abuse.
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This Incredible Snake Talks and Sends An Old Mysterious Man

Posted: Wednesday, April 14, 2010 by minangka in Labels: ,
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Residents of Tembung Village, Oercut Sei Tuan District, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra, are requsted not to hunt a giant snake that swallowed and crushed its prey, M Zakaria (13), a student of junior high school, SMP PGRI Tembung, to death.

"The snake suspected of roaming in Tembung River does not have to be hunted anymore," said one of the residents of Tembung, Mohd Safii Nasution (42), last weekend.

He admitted that he got the recommendation that can be taken as a prohibition from one of his friends named Deden (25) who lives in Tembung Village. Deden revealed that an old mysterious man ever approached him to tell a message that Tembung residents stop hunting the snake that killed Zakaria.

According to Deden, the man gave him the message after he finished doing a midday prayer at a mosque where the man also did a prayer.

Deden was shocked knowing that the man could read his personal background and past life. Deden said that the man stressed it to him the snake would be furious and there would be a disaster if the residents ruled out the message.

The disaster could be flash flood or arid Tembung river that can cause a great loss to the residents.

"The old man admitted that he delivered the message based on the order of the giant snake considered as mystical," said Deden.kompas
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World's Deepest Undersea Vents Discovered

Posted: Tuesday, April 13, 2010 by minangka in Labels: ,
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Beneath the Caribbean Sea a remotely controlled vehicle came upon the world's deepest hydrothermal vents, where super-heated mineral-rich water gushes from chimney structures onto the ocean floor.

The black smokers, named for how they spew out an iron sulfide compound that's black, sit 3.1 miles (5 kilometers) deep in the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean. While black smokers are the hottest of the undersea vents, white smokers are cooler and often contain compounds that are white in color.

Until now, the deepest known vents had been found some 2.6 miles (4.2 km) below the sea surface.

"It was like wandering across the surface of another world," said geologist Bramley Murton of the National Oceanography Centr (NOC) in Southampton, who piloted the HyBIS underwater vehicle that filmed the Caribbean vent. "The rainbow hues of the mineral spires and the fluorescent blues of the microbial mats covering them were like nothing I had ever seen before."

Like this newly discovered undersea vent, most vents are found along the Mid-Ocean ridge system, which is a chain of mountains that wends the globe like the seams on a baseball. There, giant slabs of Earth are often moving apart to create cracks where lava can make its way onto the surface. The first of these vents was discovered in 1977 on the Galapagos Rift off the coast of Ecuador.

It might seem the scorching water spouting from the vents would be a "danger" sign to any life forms.

But it turns out alien-like creatures that can withstand the heat and suffocating pressure thrive there. For instance, vents in the Pacific Ocean are known to teem with tubeworms and giant clams, while the Atlantic variety is typically home to eyeless shrimp and other extreme residents.

The pressure at the bottom of the trough, which is 500 times normal atmospheric pressure, would be the equivalent to the weight of a large family car pushing down on every square inch of the creatures that live there, the researchers say.

In addition to the HyBIS vehicle, the researchers used a robot submarine called Autosub6000 to survey the seafloor of the Cayman Trough.

Next, the team will compare the marine life in the abyss of the Cayman Trough with organisms found at other deep-sea vents. They will also study the chemistry of the super-hot water and the geology of the undersea volcanoes where the vent system is found.

In general, studying the life forms that thrive in such unlikely havens could provide insights into the possibility of life on other planets, and even how life on Earth began.
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Use Summer Time to Fortify Your Soul

Posted: Monday, April 5, 2010 by minangka in Labels:
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Nature has a strange way of calming the soul and reviving the spirit. Within minutes of arriving at the ocean, you can feel a sense of harmony covering you like a blanket.

Staring at a mountain range can only leave a person awe struck and reminded of how small we are in this world. Observing the fixed order in which the sun rises and sets leaves those who reflect upon it craving to create that same sense of order in their life. In essence, taking the time to enjoy nature can mean taking time to strengthen your faith.

Summertime is upon us, and while some may spend it tucked away indoors with the air conditioning on, why don’t you use this time as an opportunity to take full advantage of what the outdoors has to offer.

A unique way of doing so would be to structure your outdoor activities around the ayahs of the Quran. The Quran offers several ayahs that remind us to reflect upon the beautiful outdoor world that surrounds us. So why not dedicate some of your time this summer for each of these ayahs, and truly consider their meanings?

Birds

“Do they not observe the birds above them, spreading their wings and folding them in? None can uphold them except (Allah) Most Gracious: Truly (Allah) Most Gracious: Truly it is He that watches over all things.” (Quran 67:19)

The birds come out and chirp at Fajr time (dawn). It is the perfect time to step outside before heading to work or school and think about our Creator holding them up in their flight. This can infuse the rest of the work day with the notion that everything we are accomplishing is by Allah's will.

Birds are able to defy gravity and soar through the air due to a complex body structure surpassing that of airplanes. They must have a skeleton with light bones so that it can have a lower mass than that of their feathers. Streamlined bodies also allow them to glide smoothly when they are flying.

Perfectly curved wings also allow them to obtain the lift they need to float in the sky. Internally, they have chambers with air sacs to store extra oxygen needed for their flights. Since flying makes their bodies generate increased amounts of heat, their respiratory system is designed to regulate their body temperature to keep them from overheating. Allah has given them a majestic body structure with which to fly.

Clouds

“Seest thou not that Allah makes the clouds move gently, then joins them together, then makes them into a heap? - then wilt thou see rain issue forth from their midst. And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) wherein is hail: He strikes therewith whom He pleases and He turns it away from whom He pleases, the vivid flash of His lightening well-nigh blinds the sight.” (Quran 24:43)

Children are usually fascinated by clouds. Taking some time to sit outside before dinner can be a great opportunity to point out the clouds above us. The children can help spot the ones that are moving gently, and ones that Allah has joined together into a heap. Hail and lightening may not seem so scary to children if they know that it is Allah, the Most Merciful, that is in control of it all.

To bring it to another level, parents can help children learn the scientific names for the different types of clouds. The high, wispy clouds are known as Cirrus clouds. They look almost like hair with curled up ends. Another type of cloud that sits a little lower is the Cumulus cloud. They are the puffy clouds with edges that are distinct. The clouds that produce lightning and thunder are called Cumulonimbus clouds. These cover the sky like a blanket.

Animals

“And Allah has created every animal from water: of them there are some that creep on their bellies; some that walk on two legs; and some that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills for verily Allah has power over all things.” (Quran 24:45)

A hike to a forest or a trip to the zoo can turn into a fun scavenger hunt for the different types of animals listed in this ayah. After observing the different creatures, one can think about how they would be classified according to the ayah.

The way in which animals move depends largely on the environment in which they live. Some animals are fast, while others move slowly and deliberately. There are many factors which correlate with how the animals move about, such as how they obtain their food, the land on which they live, and how they reproduce.
For example, some animals must cover great distances in order to reach their food. These animals must have ways of movement that accommodate such physical demands. Some lands are large and flat such as grasslands. The open spaces found in these areas provide animals with an opportunity to build up their speed. It is by no coincidence that some of the fastest animals can be found in grassland. Allah designs animals in the most perfect manner to suit the environment that they live in.

Bees

"And thy Lord taught the Bee to build its cells in hills, on trees, and in (men's) habitations. Then to eat of all the produce (of the earth), and find with skill the spacious paths of its Lord: there issues from within their bodies a drink of varying colors, wherein is healing for men: verily in this is a Sign for those who give thought. (Quran 16:68-69)

Next time a bee flies by, instead of ducking in fear, this ayah can be discussed as a reminder of the majesty of bees and the benefits of honey. Science has proven that honey has a number of scientific benefits. It contains an anti-infective component. This component can help heal skin wounds, coughs, and intestinal ailments. It is also known to contain anti-oxidants.

An interesting study found that 32% of cancer patients that were studied attributed honey to an improvement in their quality of life as it strengthened their immune systems which led to them contracting fewer infections.

These are just a few of the many ayahs that discuss nature in the Quran and can be used as a springboard for delving into various scientific topics this summer. These ayahs help shape our view of nature and help us to see beyond the surface. Summertime is here, and nature is just waiting to be discovered.

By Suzanne Fouad

Freelance Writer - USA

Tsunami

Posted: Tuesday, March 30, 2010 by minangka in Labels:
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Less than two years after the devastating Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004, Java island in Indonesia was hit once again by a tsunami on July 17. The death toll quickly rose to more than 500, while more than 200 people were missing. Tens of thousands of people were displaced because of the damage to the infrastructure, while residents made for the hills in panic as memories of the deadly 2004 tsunami flashed in their minds.

The term tsunami comes from the Japanese language and means "harbor" (tsu) and "wave" (nami). A tsunami (pronounced tsoo-NAH-mee) is a series of waves generated when a body of water, such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced on a massive scale. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, and large meteorite impacts all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating.

Tsunamis, unlike normal wind-generated waves, are shallow-water waves. Tsunamis have a very long wavelength — up to 100 kilometers (62 miles) — and extremely long periods — up to several hours. This allows them to travel transoceanic distances with limited energy losses and at very high speeds.

Contrary to popular belief, the idea of the tsunami as a "huge tidal wave" is not true. A tsunami actually looks like an endless fast-coming wave that breaks its way through any obstacles. The real damage caused by a tsunami is due to the huge mass of water traveling behind it. The smashing water is enough to reduce buildings to their foundations, and cars and boulders can be tossed several miles inland before the water resides. It can erode beaches that took years to form.

Out in the open water, the height of a tsunami is around 1 meter (3.3 feet), which is unnoticeable to people on ships, but because of its incredible wavelength, the wave mobilizes the ocean beneath it. The wave travels at an average speed of 800 kilometers (497 miles) an hour. As it nears the shore and the water becomes shallow, the wave slows down, causing it to pile up and increase in size. That is why, while it traveled at a height of 1 meter in the ocean, by the time it reaches the coast, a tsunami can reach a height onshore of 30 meters (98 feet), which is more than ten stories high!

How Tsunamis Are Generated

Tsunamis can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. This happens because of shifts in the layers of the crust. When this happens, the displaced mass of water forms waves, and if a large enough mass of water is displaced, a tsunami may be formed.

Submarine landslides, as well as submarine volcanoes, can also cause tsunamis by the disturbance of the overhead column of water thus leading to the displacement of large amounts of water. Meteorites or shoreline landslides can also cause disturbance from outside that can create a tsunami. This type, however, usually dissipates quickly and is not as damaging as one created by earthquakes or underwater disturbances.

Tsunami Warning System

Tsunamis cannot be prevented or precisely predicted, but there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami and there are many systems being developed and in use to reduce the damage from tsunamis. The earliest warning system was animals. Animals seem capable of detecting danger earlier and fleeing to high ground, a few minutes or even hours before a tsunami strikes. This has led scientists to speculate on whether animals can detect the subsonic Rayleigh waves, which are a type of surface wave produced by earthquakes and subterranean movement of magna.

Also, in tsunami-prone countries, several protection systems have been used to reduce the damage from the wave. Japan, for example, has been building an extensive system of tsunami walls up to 4.5 meters (14.8 feet) high to protect heavily populated coastal regions. The effectiveness of this, however, is argued because the wave can be much higher than that. While a tsunami wall may slow down the wave and break its height a little, it might not be enough to prevent major damage and loss of life. The effect of a tsunami can also be reduced drastically by nature itself. A wall of trees in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami saved the Tamil Nadu region in India from much damage because the trees broke the speed and force of the wave.

Now, in light of the 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean, the deadliest recorded tsunami ever, UNESCO and several other world bodies called for the establishment of a global tsunami warning system that would prevent loss of life through early detection of tsunamis. The system is divided into two parts. The first is concerned with a network of sensors and detectors to determine tsunamis early, while the second component is a communication infrastructure to spread warnings early enough to allow for evacuation.

As a first step towards an international early warning program, the UN meeting in Japan agreed to form the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System (IOTWS), which became active late June 2006. It consists of 25 seismographic stations relaying information to 26 national tsunami information centers, as well as three deep-ocean sensors. However, UNESCO warned that further coordination between governments and the ability of the different centers to relay information to civilians were critical for the success of the system.

The Pacific Ocean

The rim of the Pacific Ocean still remains the area most prone to tsunamis. This is because around the margins of the Pacific Ocean, denser oceanic plates tend to slip under continental plates in a process called subduction. This sometimes brings the lip of the continental plate with it. Eventually, the high pressure on the lip causes it to snap back, sending shockwaves through the earth's crust that cause an underground earthquake. The resulting subduction earthquakes are particularly effective in generating tsunamis.

The Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean alone are recorded to be the site of around eight major tsunamis in the past century, in addition to several smaller-scale tsunamis that have not been as damaging or may have gone undetected. These include tsunamis in Asia, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, or ones in the United States such as the infamous Chilean tsunami that struck Hawaii in 1960.

The 2004 Asia tsunami has brought the world's attention to the danger posed by this devastating natural phenomenon with a death toll in the 300,000 range. Much work has gone into early warning and control to prevent the repeat of such misery. But as with all natural disasters, no protective measure is 100 percent safe. Even with UNESCO's ambitious plan of protection, much will come down to the governments and the people to prevent as much loss as possible if events are repeated.m.yahia

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Goodbye

Posted: Thursday, March 18, 2010 by minangka in Labels:
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Beneath the sign that said café
I drank iceberg lavish rupees
The four legs of anyone's loyalty
My streak of the heart flow white

The traffic noise created
Blowing smoke reducer dizzy
Contract your caresses his forehead
Think likewise not change

Established himself to leave
Finding a replacement trimmer body
Although not the same but worth it
Provided he can play

O goodbye angel
Willing sincere greeting you go
Formerly yes you're the daughter of
Now my heart has been owned by ... ..