Memorizing patterns in random, confused noise is easier than it sounds. According to a new study, repeated listens alone are enough to teach the brain 100 percent accurate recognition.
"The auditory brain seems to be fairly plastic over fairly short time scales," said lead researcher Daniel Pressnitzer of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique in France.
Researchers subjected volunteers to randomly generated samples of noise that were added to a base of meaningless, complex sound. First perceived as an "indistinct hiss," the background gave way to the half-second long snippets, which sometimes repeated.
After playing a noise pattern several times, the researchers discovered that listeners nearly always recognized the noise pattern when it played again. Two listens were enough for those with a trained ear, and only about 10 listens were enough for those with less experienced ears.
"It seems like a large number of listens, but you have to remember that the things we played to these people were completely unpredictable sounds. They really just sounded like: psssh," Pressnitzer told Livescience. "For these sounds that are quite complex and completely unpredictable, it's a bit like, if you were trying to memorize 20,000 random numbers, and you just have them 10 times replayed for you.”
The listeners were never told that there was anything for them to remember, said Pressnitzer.
Participants could recall the sound weeks later, leading scientists to conclude that this auditory mechanism was not simply fast, but solid and long-lasting.
"That's quite surprising, because there's really no way they could have rehearsed in their head whatever it is they wanted to memorize," Pressnitzer said. "And also, they didn't really know that we were going to call them and play them the same sounds after a little while, so it just stayed there for some reason."
The results imply that auditory neurons rapidly adapt to a given sound stimulant, and do so in a manner that plays a "very effective role in the learning of sounds," the researchers said in a statement.
Previous studies on sound and memory have focused on speech or pure tones, Pressnitzer said. Desire to fill the gap between these two “extremes,” particularly the timbre of a voice and how people learn new sounds, inspired the study.
The study's results show that auditory memory is as impressive as visual memory, but in different ways, Pressnitzer said. While complex images can be remembered without repetition, audio memory seems to require that repetition take place in order to come into effect.
"Maybe hearing is more tuned to detect repetitions or patterns that reoccur in an environment, whereas vision could take advantage of the fact that even when you take a picture you have a different time limit, so you actually produce your own active exploration," Pressnitzer said.
NUNUKAN, KOMPAS.com - Incredible! A giant gecko found weighing 64 kilograms in Nunukan-Malaysia border in Kalakbakan ultimately sold 64 million Malaysian ringgit or equivalent to Rp 179.2 billion (exchange rate of Rp 2800).
"Gecko it is sold at RM 1 million per kilogram," Arbin said, that could perpetuate the image of gecko when contacted on his cell phone in Malaysia.
Since Daily Tribun Kaltim (Kompas Gramedia Group) announces the discovery that the gecko, the phone in the office or correspondent in turn contacted the businessman who claimed to want to buy these geckos.
Because of this, journalists in Nunukan Tribun Kaltim contact Arbin located in Tawau, Malaysia, to look back Kalakbakan gecko in it. Having checked again it was bought by an Indonesian.
"Gecko purchased his Indonesian people and then taken out of the country, if not wrong to China," said Arbin. Although already sold out, there are still many buyers chasing geckos callers are to be purchased again with a more expensive price.
Not much information was obtained Arbin about the transaction because the owner of the gecko also has gone to Kuala Lumpur. "I've tried looking for information on who buys, but no one knows. The people there just said there were people from Indonesia who buy," he said. (Noe)
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LOS ANGELES - Increased consumption of olive oil is thought to reduce the risk of suffering due to colitis, according to findings of a new study. The new findings were presented Saturday in the Digestive Disease Week conference in New Orleans, United States.
Some researchers from the School of Medicine, University of East Anglia, in England, following the development of more than 25,000 people, aged 40-65 years, between 1993 and 1997. Not one participant was suffering from colitis at the beginning of the study. Until 2002, 22 participants had inflammatory disease.
The researchers compared the diet of all people that they are not infected with the disease and found that those with the most widely consumed "oleic acid" for a possible 90 percent lower for inflammatory bowel disease. "` Oleic acid is a fatty acid omega-9 unsaturated single-embedded on a variety of sources and animal and vegetable.
The researchers concluded that people who take their food rich "oleic acid" has a much smaller chance for esophageal inflammation of the colon. "` `Oleic acid seems to help prevent the development of colitis by blocking chemicals in the large intestine contained more severe inflammation in the disease," said study leader Dr. Andrew Hart at the University of East Anglia.
"We estimate that about half of cases of colitis can be prevented if` `oleic acid is consumed in greater numbers. Two-to-three tablespoons of olive oil per day will have an impact protection," he said. Colitis is an inflammatory disease entrails mengakitkan tract ulcers in the rectum and colon, resulting in abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss.
But what is the significance of this? How did that affect civilization? Did they really have a role in human evolution? And more importantly, is culture hereditary?
You might be more connected to human beings around you than you think.
In this video neuroscientist Vilayanur Ramachandran explains the wonderful function of mirror neurons.
Ramachandran is a neurologist who is interested in mapping out the brain's basic functions and reactions. He studies persons with strokes and neurological affection to help him in gaining such knowledge.
He is the director of the Center for Brain and Cognition at the University of California, San Diego, and an adjunct professor at the Salk Institute.
He is the author of Phantoms in the Brain, A Brief Tour of Human Consciousness and The Man with the Phantom Twin: Adventures in the Neuroscience of the Human Brain.
TAPAKTUAN, KOMPAS.com - Dozens of residents from several villages in East Trumon sub-district, South Aceh district, threatened to kill Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) that destroyed local plantation areas. The wild elephant herd has destroyed dozens of hectares of palm oil trees, bananas, betel nuts, coconuts and local plantations since January, said an East Trumon resident, Syarifuddin, here Saturday.
"We have reported the rampage to the sub-district office and the Natural Resources Conservation Body (BKSDA) but received no response that it will be addressed. So it would not be our responsibility if we later intoxicated or speared the animal," he said.
There have been a lot of material damages the animal has caused suffering the residents and they have no idea where else to complain, he said. Jambo Dalem village chief, Tengku Baili, earlier said that the man-elephant conflicts have resulted in dozens of people coming to his house threatening to hunt down and kill these animals.
The chief said that the elephant-human conflict in the East Trumon sub-district has lasted for about seven years and caused a casualty, after someone was trampled by the elephant in early 2006. East Trumon sub-district chief, H Lahmuddin, said that the conflict has a negative impact on the villagers’ economy, because the crops they harvest are not good.
"I estimate the material losses caused by disturbance of elephants during the last seven years have reached hundreds of million rupiahs. We expect the government to build an elephant prevention post in order to minimize the loss," said Lahmuddin.
Besides Jambo Dalem village, a herd of elephants has also entered the residential population in Naca, Pinto Rimba and Kapa Sesak village.
"Many attempts have been made to drive away the big animals, but have not shown the expected results," he said,
He is hoping for some relevant parties to immediately overcome the problem by driving the herd back to their habitats.
"If it is not done immediately, I am afraid people will take the law into their own hands," he said.Kmps
Jakarta, There are many poisonous animals on earth. Among them there are even that can be very deadly in a short time. What are the most deadly poisonous animals?
Animals who fall into the category of toxic, hazardous chemicals usually have a so-called toxins. These toxins can be stored in glands or skin of animals.
In general, poisonous animals in the world has a very bright color. Usually bright yellow, blue, red or orange.
When predators are not afraid of color-a striking body color, then it could kill him. This is because the level of toxins in animals is so concentrated, even in small amounts can be lethal even with a direct effect on the heart and lungs.
As quoted from Buzzle and Scienceray, Wednesday (28/04/2010), the following 10 most deadly poisonous animals, namely:
1. Box jellyfish (Box jellyfish)
Box jellyfish is deadly jellyfish found in Australian waters and Asia. Toxins in this jellyfish is deadly to directly attack the heart, skin cells and human nervous system and other animals.
This animal is very strong poisons and cause tremendous pain. Usually people will be stung by the tentacles into shock and drown or be directly suffered a heart attack and died.
2. Snake King Cobra (Ophiophagus Hannah)
One bite of this snake can easily kill humans. King Cobra snake poison even able to kill an adult Asian elephant in just three hours, if bitten in vulnerable areas such as the proboscis.
King Cobra can not so toxic than other snakes, but snakes are able to inject five times more toxic than other snakes, so it can shut down five times faster than other re.
3. Marble Cone snails
This snail is found in the waters of the salt water. One drop of Marble Cone snail venom sufficient to kill about 20 people. When touched by this slugs will cause severe pain, numbness, tingling and swelling in areas untouched. It also can cause breathing failure, paralysis of muscles and vision problems. And yet there could be for anti-Marble Cone snail venom is.
4. Blue Circle Octopus (Octopus Blue-Ringed)
This octopus is only the size of a ping-pong ball, but this marine animal toxins capable of killing about 26 people. At the beginning of the bite, there is no symptoms such as pain, but within 10 minutes, the symptoms began to look like nausea and vomiting.
There are also some cases that result in paralysis and death. And until now there has been no antidote for the poison of this octopus.
5. Death Stalker Scorpions (Death Stalker Scorpion)
Most scorpions are relatively harmless and only cause pain, numbness or swelling.
Death Stalker But the scorpion is very dangerous, because it is a scorpion venom can cause unbearable pain, then fever, followed by coma, seizures, paralysis, and death.
This type of scorpion will usually kill individuals who have immune system that are not good or weak of heart. Death Stalker Scorpions are found mostly in North Africa and the Middle East.
6. Stone Fish (Stonefish)
These fish are found mostly in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and is the most toxic species of fish.
This fish store toxins in the body surface which is totally manarik and resembles stone. Stone fish venom is known to cause severe pain, and even called a 'drowning pain known to man'.
Stone fish stings can cause a person suffering from shock, paralysis and even death of the network. If you do not get immediate medical treatment can cause amputations and death in humans.
7. Brazilian Wandering Spiders (Brazilian Wandering Spider)
Brazilian Wandering spider, known as a banana or Phoneutria profit, is one of life's most poisonous creatures. This spider's venom can be very deadly even in very small quantities. 0.006 mg toxin Brazilian Wandering spiders can kill a rat.
Brazilian Wandering spider is the most poisonous spiders among other spiders. Sting the spider not only cause tremendous pain, but also can cause Priapism (an erection that lasted uncomfortable for hours and even cause impotence) in men.
These spiders live nomadic (wandering) and often hid in the daytime high in highly populated areas such as houses, piles of clothes, shoes and cars, so it can be very disturbing.
8. Inland Taipan Snake
Inland Taipan snake is the most poisonous snake in a snake ketegori. One bite of this snake can kill up to 100 adult humans. Even the Inland Taipan snake venom 400 times more toxic than ordinary cobra.
Snake venom is a neuro-toxic so that it can kill humans in less than 45 minutes.
9. Poison Dart Frogs (Poison Dart Frog)
These amphibians are found in rainforests in South America or Central America and also one of the most poisonous animal on earth.
Sized 2-inch frog was able menyimpam poison behind his skin color is beautiful and flashy.
Concentrated poison, in small quantities have been capable of killing large numbers of humans and animals, approximately 2 micrograms (number of ink used for writing).
This is called poison frog poison dart frogs, poison frogs are often taken and used on arrows for hunting. And it stung the frog any creature approaching, touching or eating it.
10. Pillows fish (puffer fish)
A beautiful aquarium fish, but can also be fatal menyababkan things. Skin and certain organs of the fish is very baracun pillow for men, and usually will mamatikan for inexperienced fishermen catching and eating this fish.
These fish can be deadly poison lips, tongue and even cause muscle paralysis. Most victims die within 24 hours. From 1996 to 2006, averaging about 20-44 incidents of poisoning per year, and six of them fatal. Because these toxins in fish, only licensed chefs are allowed to make this fish as food.Detik
Your mother always said not to look directly at the sun. In this case, you may want to make an exception.
NASA released stunning new images captured by their Solar Dynamics Observatory, or SDO, a space telescope designed to study our sun.
"SDO is our 'Hubble for the sun,'" says Lika Guhathakurta, a NASA scientist, in a statement released Wednesday. NASA says SDO will play a critical role in helping scientists understand our nearest star more thoroughly, as well as its effect on our planet.
Since its launch on February 11, SDO has been moving into a geosynchronous orbit and bringing its on-board instruments online. The images unveiled on Wednesday's press conference are among the first images sent back by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly, the observatory's main telescope array.
One thing that makes SDO unique it its ability to see the big picture -- literally. Rather than just focusing on a section of the sun, the observatory is able to monitor the entire sun in what it calls the "full disk" view.
NASA plans to have SDO in operation for the next five years, and says the observatory has enough fuel on board to continue to operate for an additional five years after it completes its initial science mission.Kmps